Yaghistan (land of rebels) were the territories of the former Frontier Province Northwest refuge where the guerrillas (mujahidun) spread out against the British in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Basically corresponds to Mohmand Agency, Buner, Dir, Swat, Kohistan, Hazara and Chamarkand. In fact even before the British era these areas were called as Yaghistan al-Kadima. The rebels took refuge near fertile valleys, lakes or rivers where they were self-sufficient in food and could take refuge after guerrilla actions.
Muslims revolted against the Sikhs of the Punjab and Kashmir and later against the British; rebels from different places gathered at Yaghistan. The first head of the rebels was Sayyid Ahmad Brelwi but the rebels were defeated seriously in Balakot 6 May 1831, Brelwi and his lieutenants were killed by the Sikhs. During first Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1842) the head of Yaghi (rebels) was Mawlana Nasir al-Din who support Dost Muhammad; then reach Mawlana direction Wilayat Ali (died 1852) followed his brother Mawlana Inayat Ali. Although the jihad centers in Yaghistan were destroyed by the British in the second half of the nineteenth century, the rebels were reconstructed or new strength and maintained; New leaders emerged as Nadjm Hadda Din al-Mulla (died 1902) and Sad Allah Mulla Khan Mastan (Mad Mullah) died in 1916. In 1902, the rebel leader Abd al-Karim ibn Wilayat Ali settled in the Buner Asmast near the river Swat; during World War I, another rebel center (rival) settled in Chamarkand in Afghan territory under Malwlana Muhammad Ali Kasuri, Mawlana Abd al-Karin Kannawdji (died 1922); Mawlawi Muhammad Bashir (died 1934) Hajji Tarangzai m (died 1937) and Mawlawi Fadl Ilahi Wazirabadi (died 1951) who fought the British in several smaller battles. The mujahidun often allied to other anti-colonial movements like Hizb Allah Djunud Rabbaniyya, Hukumat and Muwakkata-yi-Hind and the Jamiat al-Ansar.
After the 1947 original jihad movement lost importance; many rebels took part in the fighting in Kashmir against India (1948). the participation of the local people was also important in the fight in Afghanistan against the progressive government introduced in April 1978.